Prof. Andrew Peele , Prof. Michael James (Australian Synchrotron)
Dr. Daniela Stock (Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute)
Rotary ATPases are ubiquitous protein complexes that couple the translocation of protons through membranes to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP and are thus central to biological energy conversion. Eukaryotic F-type ATP synthases use energy stored in transmembrane proton gradients to synthesise the biological energy carrier ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The evolutionary related V-type...
25. Characterization of nanoscale precipitates in a new 2GPa strength steel using small angle x-ray scattering
Prof. Christopher Hutchinson (Monash University)
Steels are used extensively in the manufacture of automobiles. They may not sound like advanced materials to those not involved in their development – after all they have been available for centuries. However, if we consider a typical modern automobile, none of the steels found in the structure existed 10 years ago. These are engineering alloys that are being intensively developed and...
Dr. Kathryn Spiers (Australian Synchrotron)
The Australian Synchrotron is continually growing its Industrial customer base. The Synchrotron’s Industry Group has been providing expert support and facilitation between these Industrial clients and collaborators from more traditional academic and research institutes. These collaborations exist across a diverse and expanding range of fields. This presentation will showcase some of the...
Prof. James Holton (UCSF/LBNL)
The success or failure of any structure determination effort is dictated by the signal-to-noise ratio, so a quantitative understanding of both signal and noise is needed to have the best chance of success and to avoid wasted effort on samples that simply aren’t good enough. There are three main hurdles to every structure determination effort: the Phase Problem, the Amplitude Problem, and the...
Dr. Derek Pert (Memjet Australia)
Memjet is a privately held technology company that develops printheads and associated technology for high-speed, low cost digital colour printing. The Memjet Waterfall Printhead Technology comprises a page width printhead made up of 70,400 nozzles, which can continuously fire up to 700 million drops per second. A typical A4 page can be printed in one pass, without scanning back and forth, in...
6. In-situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering Investigation of Formation of Meso-porous Silica Nanoparticles and Swelling-Shrinking Growth Mechanism
Mr. Zhifeng Yi (Institute for Frontier Materials)
The general explanation of how MSNs grow is that the silica monomers hydrolysed from silica precursor adsorbed onto surfactant micelles and condensed into silica to form particles. However, the detailed growth mechanism of MSNs still remains unknown especially for the MSNs with small particle size. Herein, time-resolved SAXS with a synchrotron source was employed to investigate the growth of...
Mr. Jason Brouwer (Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research)
Apoptotic stimuli activate and oligomerise the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation and subsequent cell death. Crystal structures by Czabotar et al. (2013) provided novel insights into BH3-only induced Bax activation and oligomerisation, namely the separation of the core and latch domains, followed by core domain dimerisation. Here we...
Dr. William Issa (Hospira)
Hospira is a global leader in the manufacture of generic injectable pharmaceuticals. A case study will be presented showcasing the role of the Australian Synchrotron in a recent Hospira investigation.
Dr. Julian Vivian (Monash University)
Abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity triggered by the antiretroviral drug abacavir, used in the treatment of HIV infection. It is one of an increasing number of adverse drug reactions found to be associated with specific Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles. Occuring exclusively in individuals possessing HLA-B*57:01, this is one of the strongest...
134. Materials Characterisation and X-ray Free Electron Laser Science at the Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging
Dr. Brian Abbey (La Trobe University)
With the recent availability of X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) and the prospect of Diffraction Limited Storage Rings (DLSRs) just around the corner, the number of major new scientific breakthroughs in the area of coherent X-rays science is likely to rise sharply over the next few years. The past twelve months has already seen significant progress in the field including 3D imaging of...
Dr. Mark Styles (CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship)
Metallic glasses have attracted substantial attention in recent years due to their favourable combinations of high strength and corrosion resistance relative to conventional crystalline alloys. These properties make glassy metals appealing for applications such as surgical tools, electronics and sporting goods. However, glassy metals are metastable and crystallisation occurs when they are...
Dr. Ruby Law (Monash University)
Plasminogen is a 7-domain protein (with an N-terminal Pan-apple domain, five kringle domains and a C-terminal serine protease domain) that adopts a closed, activation-resistant conformation in the circulatory system. The recruitment of plasminogen to its target sites is dependant on the lysine binding sites of the kringle domains. Binding to lysine residues on cell receptors and fibrin clots...
Dr. Chris Garvey (ANSTO)
Fourier methods may be used to reconstruct the scattering length density profile of the unit cell from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements thus yielding information about the distribution of chemical component. Deuteration of the sample components can be used for phasing of the Fourier reconstruction or to provide contrast between components in bilayer stacks1. We discuss the...
4. Mechanisms of action of a potent DNA binding UVA photosensitiser using mRNA-sequencing and infrared Synchrotron microspectroscopy
Dr. Karagiannis Tom (Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute)
Phototherapy is a well-established therapeutic strategy in dermatology, particularly for the treatment of psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Treatment may either rely on the cytotoxic effect of light of a particular wavelength (e.g. UVB and narrowband UVB) or may require the use of a sensitizer (e.g. psoralens with UVA). We have developed iodinated DNA minor groove binding...
Dr. Mark Edmonds (Monash University)
The new class of topological materials including Bi2Se3 offer opportunities to develop next generation electron devices that utilize spin generation and detection without ferromagnetism . However, the fate of the Bi2Se3 surface upon exposure to atmosphere remains unclear. In particular whilst the topology of Bi2Se3 guarantees the presence of a metallic surface, the topological properties of...
133. Correlative single cell Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy reveals the effects of fixation on the biochemistry of mammalian cells.
Ms. Donna Whelan (Monash University)
Synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (SFTIR) spectroscopy provides the best available signal-to-noise which allows for fast, sensitive detection of the holistic biochemistry of single live cells. Recently developed super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRFM) techniques based on single molecule emissions can yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution in the imaging of...
Dr. Charlotte Conn (RMIT)
Self-assembled lipidic cubic phases are attracting increasing interest as biocompatible carriers of large biomolecules including proteins, peptides, DNA and drugs . A suite of new high-throughput techniques, to formulate libraries of lipidic mesophases, and structurally characterize them using the SAXS/WAXS beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, are described. Samples are contained within...
Mr. Adam Welford (Monash University)
Solution-cast, organic field-effect transistors (OFET) have many advantages, such as rapid, large area fabrication, low production cost and flexible substrates making them ideal for specialized application such as flexible displays and radio frequency identification. The small molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) naphthalene diimide (NDI) provides a versatile framework with which to build...
70. Probing Film Morphology and Surface Microstructure of Semiconducting Polymers with GIWAXS and NEXAFS
Mr. Masrur Morshed Nahid (Monash University)
In making organic electronics a reality, donor-acceptor based semiconducting polymers will play a pivotal role. The molecular packing, orientation and crystallinity of semiconducting polymer thin-films strongly influence the performance of organic electronic devices. Grazing Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS) collected at the SAXS/WAXS beamline has been used to probe the molecular...
Mr. Daniel Schauries (Department of Electronic Material Engineering, The Australian National University, Australia)
When exposed to swift heavy ion irradiation a wide range of materials show formation of ion tracks as a result of their interaction with the material’s electrons. These tracks are narrow, cylindrical-shaped regions of high defect concentration, only a few nanometres in diameter and up to tens of micrometers in length. Ion-irradiated polymers allow the fabrication of microelectronic devices...
Prof. Anthony White (University of Melbourne)
A hallmark of neurodegeneration is a failure of homeostatic mechanisms controlling the concentration and distribution of biometals. A major roadblock to understanding the impact of altered biometal homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease is the lack of specific and sensitive techniques capable of providing quantitative subcellular information on biometals in situ. Advances in X-ray...
Ms. Lina Shi (University of South Australia)
Vast quantities of bauxite ore, used for the production of alumina (Al2O3) via the Bayer process, contain appreciable concentrations of reactive silicates. Secondary precipitation of these silicates within Bayer plants results in deleterious scale formation consisting largely of aluminosilicate and titanate phases, with resulting losses of caustic soda and decreased heat transfer efficiency....
Dr. Mark Tobin (Australian Synchrotron)
Developments to enable infrared microspectroscopy to extend beyond the far field diffraction limit are being undertaken at several accelerator facilities worldwide. These include the CLIO Free Electron Laser (Paris, France), LNLS (Campinas, Brazil), and the ALS infrared beamline (Berkeley, USA). Without such developments, the spatial resolution in the mid-IR is typically 3 to 5 microns. Two...
Dr. Stephen Holt (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation)
X-ray (XRR) and Neutron Reflectometry (NR) techniques are vital and widely used for characterising the interfacial structure of thin films normal to a surface. XRR is regularly used to characterise systems such as ion distribution at the ionic-liquid/electrode surface, the structure of thin film organic photovoltaics, the structure of organic light emitting devices, phospholipid membranes at...
Dr. Daniel Eriksson (Australian Synchrotron)
The Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) beamlines serve the scientific community by enabling research that could not be done elsewhere in Australia. In order to achieve this, we are in a state of continual improvement. Here we present an overview of recently completed, currently being rolled-out, and near future developments at MX1 and MX2. Projects that have been recently completed include a...
87. The XFM beamline: Status, upgrades and directions, enabling user science across a range of disciplines
Dr. Martin de Jonge (Australian Synchrotron)
Beamlines, Instrumentation and Techniques
The X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy beamline has hosted around 250 user groups since it started user operations in 2008, and sustains high levels of oversubscription. Armed with the world-leading Maia detector, and ongoing collaboration with CSIRO, almost 100,000 scans have been performed, representing an estimated 100 Gpixels of data and a stage transit of around 200 km with a positioning...
Dr. Andrew Stevenson (Australian Synchrotron/ CSIRO)
The Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has three hutches, centred at 22, 36 and 140m from the source, in which user experiments are performed. Radiotherapy experiments are currently performed in the first of these hutches, and imaging (including tomography) in the second and third hutches. The X-ray source is provided by a superconducting multipole wiggler...
78. Absolute Dosimetry using a Graphite Calorimeter on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron
Dr. Peter Harty (ARPANSA)
In 2012-13, the Australian Synchrotron installed a superconducting multi-pole wiggler (SCMPW) on the imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) with the intention of future preclinical radiotherapy trials. Before moving to such trials, accurate knowledge of the dose delivered is required to calibrate the secondary dosimeters in regular use. When this is resolved, clinical use of the Australian...
Dr. Jason Price (Australian Synchrotron)
The Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) Beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron collect data on protein samples (PX) and chemical samples (CX). This broad range of sample types requires us to consider a number of experimental and data processing considerations. Protein samples have very large unit cells but diffract weakly, the chemical samples on the other hand have comparatively a very small...
86. Broader horizons for Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging; energy scanning and time-resolved measurements
Mr. Nicholas Phillips (ARC Imaging CoE, La Trobe University / CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship)
Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI) is a technique which is rapidly gaining in popularity throughout the X-ray microscopy community. BCDI allows the characterisation of both the shape and three-dimensional deformation field of nanocrystals at spatial resolutions approaching a few nm. Typically BCDI is sensitive to displacements of < 10-4 of a lattice spacing (Abbey, JOM, 2013)....
48. Characterisation of the PTW microDiamond detector for high spatial resolution dosimetry in microbeam radiation therapy at IMBL
Dr. Jayde Livingstone (Australian Synchrotron)
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at IMBL is based on arrays of 50&mu m wide x-ray beams with a pitch of 400&mu m. The peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) is the ratio of the peak dose to the dose between the microbeams and is an important radiobiological quantity. Accurate measurements of the PVDR require a dosimeter with high spatial resolution, dose rate independence and water equivalence for...
Bernt Johannessen (Australian Synchrotron) , Dr. Chris Glover (Australian Synchrotron) , Dr. Kappen Peter (Australian Synchrotron) , Mr. Nicholas Rae (Australian Synchrotron)
In this session we will update on the status of the XAS Beamline, including developments of the user science program, status of the 100-element fluorescence detector, status of Hutch-C, recent works completed, and further plans for upgrades and developments. The session will provide ample opportunity for Q & A and for discussing science needs that the XAS Beamline is not catering for, such...
58. Spatial dosimetric response of an ionisation chamber to kilovoltage synchrotron radiation by 2D scanning in a sub-millimetre beam
Dr. Duncan Butler (ARPANSA)
Radiotherapy and Radiobiology
The IMBL at the Australian Synchrotron is able to provide high-brightness kilovoltage radiation in the energy range 20 – 200 keV. A PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionisation chamber was scanned through a point-like (sub-millimetre) beam and the ionisation signal from the chamber was recorded as a function of position. In this way an image was constructed from the spatial dosimetric response of the...
Ruth Plathe (Australian Synchrotron)
The THz/Far-IR beamline at the Australian Synchrotron is coupled to a Bruker IFS125 FT spectrometer which is equipped with a variety of optical components and detectors covering the spectral range from 10 to 5000 cm-1. Experiments from a variety of fields such as atmospheric and astrophysical sciences, geology, electrochemistry, nano-materials as well as biology have been successfully...
Mr. Muhammad Salman Maqbool (La Trobe University)
Nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancy (N-V) centres have been shown to be useful for applications involving cellular tracking in vivo at the molecular level. The sustained fluorescence of these nanodiamonds is related to their structure, and is supposed to be influenced by the strain distribution inside the crystals. In the present work, Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (BCDI) has been...
152. A combined experimental and computational approach to understanding and developing solid-state ionic conductors
Ms. Julia Wind (University of Sydney)
Materials that exhibit significant mobility of different types of charge carriers have potential applications as fuel-cell membranes, electrodes, batteries and sensors. A thorough understanding of the fundamental atomic-scale mechanisms of the conduction processes in these materials is necessary to identify ways in which their local chemistry and structure can be modified to lower activation...
Dr. Adrian Hawley (Australian Synchrotron)
In the body, triglyceride oils are digested into amphiphilic fatty acid and monoglyceride. These products subsequently self-assemble into a range of structures, including liquid crystal phases.1,2 It is hoped that understanding their digestion and self-assembly processes offers new opportunities for lipophilic drug delivery. Previous studies using small angle scattering and cryo-TEM have...
111. A combined XAS and TEM study on functional cobalt oxide catalysts for water oxidation catalysis
Ms. Hannah King (James Cook University)
One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to develop methods of producing cheap, carbon-neutral, clean energy.(1) The Sun is a forefront renewable energy source, however current solar technologies are limited by the Sun’s diurnal nature. To become a viable future technology, solar energy systems will need to efficiently convert sunlight into energy, and then provide a method of...
52. A Compton spectroscopy technique for quality assurance of synchrotron based stereotactic radiotherapy
Dr. Iwan Cornelius (Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria, Australia)
Spectroscopy has the potential to be a powerful tool for the quality assurance (QA) of radiotherapy beams; however, direct measurement using spectroscopy detectors is confounded by pulse pile up effects. This is particularly significant for high dose rate, synchrotron based stereotactic radiotherapy modalities such as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). We herein investigate a Compton...
Mr. Nader Afshar (Controls Engineer)
Reliable, robust, and predictable control of motion axes is a key component to any synchrotron beamline. To this end, new motion controls hardware (Geo-Brick-LV-GBLV, Delta-Tau-UK) was recently introduced at the XAS, IMBL, SXR and XFM Beamlines. Challenges included optimising and tuning motion axes behaviour for in-vacuum motors, closed-loop tracking axes, and scanners with velocity...
74. A New and Novel Approach to the Formation of Metal-Metal Bonded Complexes using “Inorganic Grignard Reagents”
Mr. Jamie Hicks (Monash University)
The synthesis, structure, bonding and reactivity of molecular compounds containing unusual metal-metal bonds continues to be a topic of considerable interest. We have added to this field by utilising extremely bulky monodentate amido ligands for the stabilisation of a number of low oxidation state transition metal complexes, of which some have shown reactivity comparable to that of the...
Dr. Mark Edmonds (Monash University)
Topological insulators, such as Bi2Se3, are a new class of material that possess topologically protected Dirac surface states that hold great promise for next generation nano-electronic devices . However, major challenges exist in realizing Bi2Se3 devices that operate in the topological regime in air. The first is that as-prepared Bi2Se3 is invariably n-type doped due to selenium vacancies...
Dr. Helen Brand (Australian Synchrotron.)
The powder diffraction beamline at the Australian Synchrotron exploits the unique properties of synchrotron radiation by offering tunable wavelengths (6 keV – 30 keV) to minimise sample absorption, high flux and good S/N for increased detection limits, and high resolution to minimise peak overlap. The X-ray powder diffraction beamline produces bright, high collimated X-ray beams that, when...
Andreas Moll (Australian Synchrotron) , Lauren Baird (Australian Synchrotron) , Rosemary Waghorn (Australian Synchrotron)
The User Portal facilitates all aspects of user engagement with the synchrotron from proposal submission, down to processing data on massive and inputting subsequent publications. Ongoing development aims to enhance user experience, improve access to data and increase reporting output; for the users, the Australian Synchrotron and funding bodies.
Dr. Cyril Curtain (Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health)
The 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein -synuclein (-syn) misfolds to form fibrils that are the major constituent of the Lewy body intracellular protein inclusions and neurotoxic oligomers occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Using SAXS data analysed by ensemble optimised modelling (EOM) we have been...
Prof. Feng Wang (Swinburne University of Technology) , Ms. Rebecca Auchettl (Swinburne University of Technology)
Methoxyphenols (MPs) are antioxidants play an important role in degenerative diseases & cancers. Methoxyphenols are found in many food products however, the molecular details of methoxyphenols are limitedly known. o-methoxyphenol (oMP), m-methoxyphenol (mMP) and p-methoxyphenol (pMP) are positional isomers of one another. The electronic structures, properties and spectra of oMP, mMP & pMP were...
Dr. Ganesan Ramanathan (ARPANSA)
Calorimetry is the most accurate method of quantifying the x-ray flux and dose in the synchrotron beam lines for medical and research applications. In calorimetry, the radiation dose absorbed results in raising the temperature of the absorbing medium which is measured accurately. Several absorbing media have been tried but graphite with relatively low specific heat and zero heat defect has...
Ms. Katie H. Sizeland (Massey University)
Leather is a complex biomaterial largely composed of collagen fibrils. As skins are processed to produce leather, chemical and physical changes take place that affect the physical properties of the material. The structural foundation of these changes at the collagen fibril level is not fully understood and formed the basis of this investigation. Synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering...
Gloria Xun (Australian Synchrotron)
The biological functions of proteins depend on the ability of the proteins to fold correctly. Misfolding/unfolding of proteins can cause formation of insoluble pathological aggregates, leading to degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s . Although considerable studies have been carried out on the molecular mechanism of protein aggregation, the lack of detailed information...
102. Comparison of dose deposition patterns of multi-slit versus single-slit collimators in synchrotron MRT and their effect on 9L cells
Prof. Michael Lerch (CMRP, UoW)
Results of quantitative evaluation and comparison of dose deposition patterns and radiobiological effects in synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy (MRT) - in particular, the inter-microbeam "valley" dose - for six beam geometries and three different in-beam dose values are presented. The X-Tream dosimeter and Gafchromic film have been used to quantitatively compare the dose distribution resulting...
Saliha Muradoglu (ANU)
When high energetic heavy ions penetrate a solid, energy is lost predominantly through inelastic collisions with the target electrons. Such interactions can leave narrow cylindrical trails of damage as the ions traverse through the material, termed ‘ion tracks’. In minerals such as apatite, track formation can occur as a result of spontaneous fission from naturally occurring uranium...
Lenneke Jong (Australian Synchrotron)
The Scientific Computing and IT group at the Australian Synchrotron develops software tools to support beamline science, maximise the user experience and accelerate the scientific outcomes of their beam time. Our suite of open source tools facilitate better and more streamlined data collection integrated with automatic and real-time processing, the results of which can inform decisions about...
71. Correlating morphology and device physics of high open circuit voltage, low-band gap all polymer solar cell using various characterization tools.
Mr. Kedar Deshmukh (Monash University)
The microstructure and device physics of photovoltaic polymer blends based on the donor polymer BFS4 (a dithienyl-benzo[1,2- b:4,5-b]dithiophene / 5-fluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole co-polymer) paired with the naphthalene diimide-based acceptor polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) will be presented. Efficiencies of over 4% are demonstrated, with an open circuit voltage of greater than 0.9 V achieved. Near-edge...
131. Correlative hydrated cellular imaging using Coherent Diffraction Imaging at the Australian Synchrotron
Dr. Michael Jones (Australian Synchrotron; ARC Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging)
X-ray coherent diffractive imaging provides high resolution, high sensitivity images of intact cellular specimens without the need for sectioning, staining, or tagging. Recent advances in this field allow high resolution imaged to be obtained with a fraction of the dose than otherwise possible while increasing image quality. Further advances have pushed the technique into the X-ray...
Mr. Nicholas Anthony (Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, La Trobe University, VIC 3086, Australia)
Ptychography is a method for quantitatively determining the phase of of a samples’ complex transmission function. The technique relies upon the collection of multiple overlapping coherent diffraction patterns from laterally displaced points on the sample. The overlap of measurement points provides complementary information that significantly aids in the reconstruction of the complex wavefield...
60. Developing Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging for Biological crystals at the Advanced Photon Source
Ms. Hannah Coughlan (La Trobe University)
Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI) of radiation hard crystals (e.g. lead, gold) is now a relatively mature technique for characterising elastic strain fields at the nanoscale. The technique relies upon the fact that coherent diffraction from a crystal produces a continuous intensity distribution around every Bragg peak; if sampled correctly, this information can be used to reconstruct...
Mr. Guido Cadenazzi (La Trobe University)
Ptychography has rapidly developed into a widespread technique for high-resolution X-ray microscopy due to improvements in image quality and the added flexibility over conventional Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) techniques. These benefits are achieved via scanning the sample across a finite incident beam such that overlapping regions reinforce the solution for the sample transmission...
Dr. Anton Tadich (Australian Synchrotron)
Many of the more demanding surface science experiments at the soft x-ray beamline are often concerned with the interaction between ordered substrates of novel materials and adlayer molecules or thin films. Whilst soft x-ray spectroscopy is extremely powerful in characterizing the chemical information at such interfaces, being able to measure concomitant changes in other physical properties can...
Prof. Janice Aldrich-Wright (University of Western Sydney)
The binding affinity of a series of square planar achiral platinum(II) compounds of the type [Pt(AL)(IL)]2+, where AL is 1,2-diaminoethane and IL are 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4-Mephen), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Mephen), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (47-Me2phen), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (56-Me2phen) or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline...
Dr. David Turner (Monash University)
Chiral coordination polymers, using ligands that contain large aromatic cores have been used to synthesize a series of polycatenanes and a polyrotaxane, by virtue of π interactions involving metallomacrocyclic motifs, including interpenetrated networks that have been used as stationary phases to obtain excellent enantiomeric resolution in liquid-chromatographic separations. A series of...
Mr. Giang Tran (La Trobe University)
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a powerful method for recovering the transmission function of an object from its far-field diffraction pattern using iterative algorithms . Recently, it has been shown that CDI works with partially coherent beam . Methods have been developed for dealing with CDI data for which the coherence properties of the illumination are unkown . In this work,...
Mr. Nicholas Rae (Australian Synchrotron)
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is a technique for structure determination and speciation studies which is well suited to the in situ study extreme environments. Extreme environments are systems under high pressure and high temperature. These systems occur in nature when geofluids dissolve metals from large regions of host rock, and later precipitate the metals as ore deposits. Apart from...
Dr. Martin de Jonge (Australian Synchrotron)
The promise of non-destructive 3D elemental imaging using x-ray fluorescence tomography is alluring, but the technique is not widely utilised due to the extremely long scan times required for modest tasks. Accordingly, the technique is often applied to imaging of small specimens at low definition. Our first 3D demonstration on a 10-μm estuarine diatom, Cyclotella meneghiniana achieved a...
Ms. sahar mirzaei (ANU)
The structural properties of Ge NPs synthesised by ion implantation in amorphous Si3N4 at 400 oC. A combination of conventional techniques (XRD and RBS) and synchrotron-based method have been used to investigate the properties of NPs. XRD spectra reveals poly crystallization of the matrix for samples annealed at 1100 oC and a peak related to SiGe structure. RBS study indicates diffusion of Ge...
Mr. Pablo Mota Santiago (Australian National University)
The photoluminescence signal of Amorphous silicon oxynitrides can be tunable by controlling their stoichiometry. The change in PL is related to defect centres and phase structures changes . A coupling between the surface plasmon resonace of Au nanoparticles with these PL centres would lead to develop new optoelectronic and light source devices. To study this process we...
Ms. Song Ha Nguyen (Swinburne University of Technology)
Self-assembly of molecules on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) to form ordered patterns have been an area of active research since it is relevant to colloidal stabilization, patterning and thin film devices. Most of the works have focused on 2D crystalline layers of the molecules absorbed onto graphite surfaces. However, more and more research has provided the significance of forming...
Dr. Christopher Hall (Australian Synchrotron)
The use of radiochromic film for clinical dosimetry is well established, and in principle these films can provide the high spatial resolution dosimetry required for the microbeam x-ray radiotherapy research taking place on IMBL. The spatial resolution of a measurement made with the radiochromic film is typically limited by the densitometry. For broad beam illuminations (> 1 mm) the spatial...
Daryl Howard (Australian Synchrotron)
A Tudor portrait of Henry VIII on oak dating from 1540s is currently undergoing conservation treatment. This treatment includes the removal of restoration paint layers applied prior to its acquisition by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Conventional imaging techniques, x-radiography, infrared reflectography and ultraviolet fluorescence suggested damages underneath the restorations. These...
113. Hydrogen Bonding of O-Ethylxanthate Compounds and Neutron Structural Determination of C–H•••S Interactions
Ms. Lauren Macreadie (Monash University)
The hydrogen bonding in mixed sulfur/oxygen acceptor systems can be thoroughly investigated using the O-ethylxanthate (or O-alkyldithiocarbonate) family of anions. A series of O-ethylxanthate salts (guanidinium, methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, and tetrapropylammonium), were structurally characterised using synchrotron X-ray...
100. Improved Dynamic Analysis Method for Quantitative High Definition XFM Element Imaging using Maia
Dr. Chris Ryan (CSIRO)
Projection of quantitative element images from fluorescence data collected on the XFM beamline of the Australian Synchrotron equipped with a Maia detector and real-time processor uses the Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software. It uses matrix transformations to achieve least-squares fitting of pixel spectra in X-ray fluorescence imaging and tomography at up to ~3 x 10^7 events...
Mr. Neamul Khansur (UNSW)
Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BF) is a multiferroic ceramic familiar for the existence of both strong ferroelectric and magnetic ordering at room temperature. In addition to the multiferroicity, the remarkably high Curie temperature (Tc ) and spontaneous polarization (Ps ) of BF has made it an attractive candidate to replace lead-based Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 for...
65. In-situ examination of electrodeposited manganese dioxide electrodes for energy storage applications: a combined small angle x-ray scattering and powder diffraction study.
Ms. Madeleine Dupont (University of Newcastle)
Manganese dioxide is used in many electrochemical applications including catalysis, batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Thin film manganese dioxide electrodes prepared by electrodeposition have been shown to have extremely high capacitive performance . This is due to manganese dioxide thin films having low resistance and high surface area. However, these properties diminish markedly...
Dr. Evan Robertson (La Trobe University)
Water is both an important and interesting molecular system that needs to be well understood because it exists in so many fields of research, and more often than not its presence can be undesired. The ice particles in both our own atmosphere, and the ISM, predominantly exist as either small ice particles or silicate dust grains coated with ice which can act as a reaction medium for producing...
Mr. Mahmut Ruzi (Latrobe University)
Ice plays an important role in the atmosphere of earth and the interstellar medium through interaction with radiation and hosting chemical reactions. Ice aerosols in the troposphere scatter and absorb radiation from sun and thus have substantial influence on the temperature of earth. Understanding ice’s behaviour is believed to be essential for predicting the future of earth. Due to...
Mrs. Huda Alkhaldi (ANU)
Ion irradiation of crystalline germanium (c-Ge) results in the formation of a porous surface, and sometimes buried porous layer. The controlled fabrication of such porous structures has potential applications in lighting, gas detection and catalytic applications. In the present work, we employ a combination of complimentary characterisation techniques to better understand the...
Mr. Pablo Mota Santiago (Australian National University)
Amorphous silicon oxynitrides (SiOxNy) are commonly used as barrier material due to their interesting mechanical and chemical properties. However, their application as gradient-index materials makes them also suitable candidates for the synthesis of nanostructures . Here, we present direct evidence for the formation of ion tracks in 1-micron-thick...
Dr. Connie Darmanin (La Trobe)
Self-assembly lipids have been used to solve a number of G-protein coupled receptor structures to date and the mechanism behind it still remains a mystery. Here we report on two factors; lipid incubation time and protein concentration and investigate three different lipid systems; monoolein (MO), phytantriol (PT) and phytanoyl ethanomide (PE), which influenced the uptake of the Dopamine 2 long...
Dr. Tamsyn Ross (Australian Synchrotron)
An increasing number of industrial users are looking to the SAXS/WAXS and PD beamlines for their materials characterisation needs. In recent years commercially-relevant projects from a broad range of fields, including primary industry, energy materials and mining, have met with success due to staff expertise and dedication and the high quality of the facilities.
Ms. Tanita Wierenga (University of Tasmania, School of Physical Sciences - Chemistry)
N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs) have many advantages to their phosphine analogues and have been used for a variety of catalytic applications. Bis-NHCs in particular have been used where bidentate phosphine complexes have previously been used including polymerisation and cross coupling reactions. Our group has been interested in palladium bis-NHCs with a wide variety of different...
66. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy of naphthalene diimide-thiophene co-polymers
Dr. Lars Thomsen (Australian Synchrotron)
Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is an important tool for probing the structure of conjugated polymer films used in organic electronic devices. High-performance conjugated polymers are often donor-acceptor co-polymers which feature a repeat unit with multiple functional groups. To facilitate better application of NEXAFS spectroscopy to the study of such...
Mr. Safaa Ali (James Cook University)
Pseudo-Grignard reagents1, 2, ‘‘RLnX’’ (Ln = Eu, Sm and Yb; R = Me, Ph or C6H2Me3-2, 4, 6; X = Br, I), formed by the treatment of organic halides like PhBr or PhI with rare earth metals in Lewis base solvents, can be employed to various organic or inorganic transformations3, 4. We now report the synthesis of new divalent rare earth metal formamidinate complex [Ln(Form)Br(thf)2]2 through the...
Dr. Dominique Appadoo (The Australian Synchrotron)
Currently, lasers are being introduced to the THz/FarIR beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. This will allow some new techniques such as steady state pump probe, photolysis and pyrolysis experiments to be undertaken at the beamline. We currently have a high powered cw CO2 laser and a pulsed YAG laser. At the THz beamline, an Enclosive Flow Cooling (EFC) cell is available for use. The...
Dr. Chris Glover (Australian Synchrotron)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a technique that typically challenges the performance of its monochromator. The XAS Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron utilises a commercially delivered liquid Nitrogen cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM). This DCM possesses excellent energy and beam offset stability. Some mechanical and electrical improvements have been made in-house to enhance...
121. Opportunities for Industrial Engagement and Commercial Applications of X-ray and Correlative Microscopy at the Australian Synchrotron
Dr. Kathryn Spiers (Australian Synchrotron)
The Australian Synchrotron is a powerful scientific tool offering state of the art techniques and is ideally positioned to provide services for the evolution and commercialization of the next generation of high-tech products. The increasing pressure to move products to market quickly has required industry to look for new approaches in their development cycle. To this end, industry is embracing...
Damia Garriga (Monash University) , Marion Boudes (Monash University)
The production of diffraction-quality crystals remains the major bottleneck in X-ray crystallography, as shown by data from the main structural biology consortia. By contrast, in certain systems, crystals grow readily in the complex environment of the cell used to express the protein, be it in the natural context or in a recombinant system for overexpression. Recent interest in these in...
Prof. Geoffrey Jameson (Massey University)
A preliminary structure of the protein Yih1 (Yeast impact homologue 1), a protein of partially characterised function, has been obtained by multi-dimensional NMR methods. The ~300-residue protein has two distinct domains of approximately 120 and 160 residues with an approximately 20-residue linker. However, no NOEs could be found involving contacts between the two domains. Solution-state SAXS...
Dr. Nathan Cowieson (Australian Synchrotron)
Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is sensitive to the size and shape of macromolecules in solution. Whilst there can be some uncertainties involved in modelling macromolecular structure directly from SAXS data, relative changes in structure can be measured with a high degree of confidence. The binding of a small-molecule ligand to a large protein in itself is generally too subtle an...
Mrs. Allina Nadzri (Australian National University,)
Ion tracks consist of narrow (~10 nm), long (~10-100 μm) cylindrical defect regions that are generated by high-velocity heavy ions when they pass through a variety of solids. Such tracks result naturally from fission of uranium inclusions in minerals such as apatite and zircon and are used for determining the age and thermal history of geological material. This so called ‘fission track dating’...
24. Scanning photoelectron microscopic (SPEM) examination of sulfur evolution on acid leached chalcopyrite with and without added pyrite or soluble iron
Mr. YUBIAO LI (University of South Australia)
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most abundant copper-bearing mineral. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in mine waste environments is considered to contribute to the serious environmental issue of acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) through release of toxic aqueous copper, particularly in the presence of microbes, dissolved O2, aqueous Fe3+ and pyrite, with the latter two being associated with...
Dr. Alan Riboldi-Tunnicliffe (Australian Synchrotron)
We offer services from cloning your gene and small scale expression trials, protein purification and crystallisation trials, through to full structure determination.
Dr. Grant van Riessen (La Trobe University)
Coherent diffractive imaging is a high-resolution method capable of providing phase, chemical and magnetic sensitivity over a large field-of-view. Because iterative algorithms are substituted for image-forming lenses, the technique is not limited by the difficulty of manufacturing X-ray optics. It has been widely adopted by the international synchrotron community and is quickly becoming a...
Mr. Jeffrey Seow (Monash University)
Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an unstructured protein of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite. The two allelic forms of MSP2, 3D7 and FC27, differ in a central variable region which is flanked by conserved N- and C-terminal regions. Vaccine trials using 3D7-MSP2 have shown evidence of strain specific protection despite the detectable presence of conserved region antibodies. This work...
Dr. Suzanne Norwood (Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072.)
Retromer is a peripheral membrane protein complex that plays a critical role in a broad range of physiological, developmental and pathological processes including Wnt signalling, toxin transport and amyloid production in Alzheimer’s disease. The mammalian retromer complex consists of a core heterotrimeric cargo recognition sub-complex (VPS26, VPS29 and VPS35) associated with a dimer of...
Mr. Ruixing Feng (Australian National University)
Ge has been considered as a potential alternative material for silicon in fabricating future advanced CMOS devices due to its high hole mobility and low dopant activation temperature. Here we study the effect of In concentration on the structural and electrical properties of Ge with or without C co-implantation. By using extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge...
Dr. Susanne Feil (svi)
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) constitute a family of bacterial toxins that form pores in many cell types. CDCs are secreted as water-soluble monomers, bind to cholesterol-rich membranes, oligomerise and insert into cell membranes. The presence of membrane cholesterol is required for the formation of large pores in cell membranes. In order to convert from a soluble monomeric protein...
41. Structure characterization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii magnesium chelatase GUN4 and H subunits by small-angle X-ray scattering
Mrs. shabnam Tarahi Tabrizi (macquarie university)
The magnesium chelatase enzyme catalyses the ATP dependent insertion of Mg+ in to protoporphyrin IX(PPIX) in the first step of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway consists three different protein subunits ChlI ChlD and ChlH. The GUN4 protein is a regulatory subunit of Mg-chelatase that binds the chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediates, PPIX and Mg protoporphyrin(Mg-PPIX), stimulates Mg...
Dr. Craig Morton (St Vincent's Institute for Medical Research)
Infection by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects in the order of 150 million people world-wide with more than 300,000 dying each year from HCV-induced liver disease. The RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase of HCV, NS5b, is widely accepted as an ideal candidate for therapeutic development due to the lack of an equivalent enzymatic activity in normal human cells and the absolute dependence of viral...
Roxanne Smith (PhD student)
The lack of antibiotic development coupled with the rapid increase of resistance to antibiotics in bacteria, has led to a situation described as an ‘alarming public health crisis’(1). Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are becoming a significant problem because some bacterial strains cannot be treated with our current strongest and last resort antibiotics. There is an urgent need to develop...
Ms. sahar mirzaei (ANU)
A uniform ion distribution of Ge+1 ions were achieved through multiple-energy/fluence implantations of Ge ions into 2μm a-Si3N4, which were grown on Si(100) substrates. Implantations were performed at temperatures of -196, 200 and 400 oC, to investigate the effect of implanting temperature on the phase of the matrix. Multiple techniques were used to characterise the evolution of the...
Jeff Crosbie (University of Melbourne)
The aim of the project is to investigate how normal and malignant cell migration is influenced by conventional radiotherapy doses as well as by experimental treatments such as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Radiation-induced tumor cell migration is a recognized phenomenon that can occur when cells are sub-lethally irradiated. Our group previously demonstrated that tumor cells showed...
Bruce Cowie (Australian Synchrotron.)
The soft X-ray beam line has fully implemented a series of reference materials that can be placed into the X-ray beam at the same time as a sample is recorded with NEXAFS. This allows a direct cross check against a calibrated photon energy for every spectrum. All the measured reference spectra are presented here in time this will be transparently integrated into the user data taking
Dr. Stephen Harrop (Australian Synchrotron)
The MX1 and MX2 beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron are sophisticated machines for the collection of single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The two stations serve a diverse community of researchers in the structural sciences, from mineralogy to virology. Here we look 'under the hood' at the technologies that bind the individual beamline components together into a highly automated data...
19. Thermal Expansion of Monoclinic Natrojarosite: A Combined Time-of-Flight Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction Study.
Dr. Helen Brand (Australian Synchrotron.)
Jarosites and related minerals are of great interest to a range of mineral processing and research applications. In some settings jarosite formation is encouraged, In other environments jarosite formation can hinder the desired reaction. Jarosites are a major component of acidic soils and are present in significant amounts in acid mine drainage environments. There has been a recent resurgence...
49. Time-resolved phase evolution during creation of nanoporous Cu current collectors by a dealloying approach
Ms. Tingting SONG (RMIT University)
Dealloying, used to fabricate nanoporous metals, is a process where less noble components (e.g. Al) in the precursor (e.g. AlCu) are dissolved, leaving the nobler elements (e.g. Cu) to form a nanoporous structure. The three-dimensionally nanoporous Cu is desired in lithium-ion batteries as current collectors, which has a unique advantage in providing large surface area for active materials and...
94. Unraveling the morphology of a novel, high-efficient polymer solar cell using synchrotron-based techniques
Mr. Wenchao Huang (Monash University)
Organic solar cells are a next generation photovoltaic technology with the potential for a low cost of manufacturing and printing on flexible substrates. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased rapidly, recently exceeding 9% efficiency. Understanding the morphology of the active layer of polymer based bulk heterojunction solar cells is necessary to further improve device...
Dr. Elizabeth Kyriakou (University of Melbourne)
The radiobiology of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is poorly understood and this is confounded by difficulties in measuring the dose-distribution. Our investigation assesses the use of microscopy to determine the peak and valley dose in Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). MRT is performed using the horizontal collimator with arrays of 25µm wide x-ray beams with a pitch of 175µm....
101. Using Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) to probe G-quadruplex DNA-platinum(II) complex interactions
Prof. Janice Aldrich-Wright (University of Western Sydney)
Platinum(II) anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, bind to DNA coordinately and have many limitations including poor effectiveness against many cancer cell lines, acquired resistance, cross-resistance as well as unwanted side effects. To overcome these limitations we have recently synthesised dinuclear (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)-based complexes that are connected by thiol chains...
99. Using synchrotron radiation to determine the X-ray structure and ct-DNA binding affinity of platinum(II) anticancer complexes
Mr. Benjamin Pages (University of Western Sydney)
Platinum(II) anticancer complexes incorporating 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (44Me2bpy) and 2-(2'-pyridyl)quinoxaline (2pq) as polyaromatic ligands and cyclic diamines as ancillary ligands have been synthesised and were characterised via several methods including synchrotron radiation X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of...
Sherry Mayo (CSIRO)
It is now possible to collect very rapid micro-CT scans at IMBL with data collection times down to 16s or less per scan. This makes it possible to collect three-dimensional data on physical systems that are changing over time. While this provides an exciting scientific opportunity it also comes with significant challenges in terms of data storage, reconstruction and analysis. Dealing...
Dr. Andrew Martin (ARC Centre for Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, School of Physics, University of Melbourne)
Holographic references can enhance the robustness of coherent diffraction imaging experiments and greatly simplify data analysis. However, to date holography has only only been possible with a limited set of special reference waves. We present a new approach to x-ay Fourier-transform holography with an almost unrestricted choice for the reference wave, opening up new avenues to optimize...
144. X-ray Micro-Tomography using fluorescence from a metal foil as a light source combined with X-ray Micro-Diffraction
Dr. Kappen Peter (Australian Synchrotron)
Micro-X-ray computed tomography is a well established 3D imaging method that plays an important role in fields like materials science, food research, and bio-medical imaging. It is interesting to combine tomography with other techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, for assessing physical properties (density and crystallography) of materials that are heterogeneous on the micrometer scale. The...
Ms. Mayanthi Goonewardanea (Swinburne)
Radiosensitizers are used in radiotherapy to enhance tumour control of radioresistant hypoxic tumours. Recent studies indicate that the formation of radical anions is a key step. Thus understanding the ionization reactions of radiosensitizers is crucial in evaluating the radiosensitization potential and in developing new and more effective drugs. The present study concentrates on the...
Dr. Ryo Sekine (University of South Australia)
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) constitute a major group of engineered nanomaterials increasingly found in consumer products. These products exploit the unique properties of Ag-NPs such as their antibacterial effects, special optical properties, and high specific surface area and reactivity. However, there are significant concerns regarding the potential for Ag-NPs to pose equally unique risks...
30. In meso crystallization: Compatibility of Different Lipid Bicontinuous Cubic Mesophases with the Cubic Crystallization Screen in Aqueous Solution.
Ms. Leonie van 't Hag (University of Melbourne / CSIRO)
A novel in meso crystallization method has facilitated the structural determination of several biologically relevant integral membrane proteins (IMPs). However, the method remains poorly understood as IMPs are difficult to express and handle. Analogous to solution based crystallization, in meso crystallization requires extensive screening of precipitant conditions. Bicontinuous cubic phases...
Ms. Joanne Du (Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, affecting over thirty million people worldwide. The current treatment of wet AMD requires frequent intravitreal injections which are highly invasive and expensive. Therefore, a less invasive and long-lasting treatment is required. One option for achieving such an outcome is using self-assembled lipid-based...
Ms. Eleanor Mare (Australian National University)
In geochemical systems, the relative stability of a given element in one phase or another is known as its partitioning behaviour, and many models of Earth processes are based on the changes in partitioning with pressure (and/or other intensive variables). Since higher pressures favour smaller volumes, changes in partitioning with pressure can be predicted if the pressure-dependence of the...
13. Determining Molecular Orientation, Packing, and Domain Purity in Organic Photovoltaic Devices with Synchrotron Radiation
Prof. Harald Ade (North Carolina State University)
In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs), electron donating and electron accepting materials form a complex network of discrete and distributed heterointerfaces and charge transport pathways in the photoactive layer where critical photo-physical processes occur. However, little is known about the structural properties of these interfaces due to their 3-dimensional arrangement...
Dr. Bo Chen (ARC Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia)
In recent years Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) has rapidly matured into a powerful tool for high-resolution X-ray phase contrast imaging. However, a fundamental limit exists on the size of object that can be imaged when using conventional CDI due to the need to correctly sample the measured diffraction intensities. Ptychography, a technique initially developed for electron microscopy, can...
Dr. Bridget Ingham (Callaghan Innovation)
Spotty diffraction rings are symptomatic of large-grained polycrystalline materials. Analysis of these rings falls into a void between single crystal and powder diffraction methods, and is usually dismissed or discussed only briefly and in a qualitative fashion. Recently, we have developed statistical methods for quantitatively analysing the ‘spottiness’ of diffraction rings, such as those...
Dr. Brett Collins (The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience)
Caveola membrane invaginations are a striking feature of many vertebrate cell types, and are critical for cell signaling, endocytosis and mechanotransduction. Their formation depends on the caveolins and the cavin peripheral membrane proteins (cavin1, cavin2, cavin3 and cavin4), although there is currently no atomic level information addressing the mechanisms that underpin caveola assembly....
76. A Two-pronged Attack: Dual Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum M1 and M17 Metalloaminopeptidases by a Novel Series of Hydroxamic acid-based Inhibitors.
Dr. Nyssa Drinkwater (Monash University)
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) causing the most deaths. The prevention and treatment of Pf malaria is becoming increasingly difficult due to the spread of drug resistant parasites. New therapeutics with a novel mode of action are desperately required. Two Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidases, PfA-M1 and PfA-M17, play crucial roles in...
Dr. Anton Maksimenko (Australian Synchrotron)
The Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) of the Australian Synchrotron (AS) is now becoming one of the most advanced instruments of this type in the world. It is designed to provide a wide variety of imaging techniques. Three beamline’s enclosures at various distances provide the end user a good choice of beam characteristics ranging from the hi-flux for lower resolution and size up to huge...
Dr. Qinfen Gu (Australian Synchrotron)
Zeolite molecular sieves are one of the most important materials for separation of molecules. We discovered smart porous materials for gas separation – zeolites containing cations that function as molecular trapdoors allow guest-selective, size-inverse separations. For example, a “molecular trapdoor” mechanism in specifically tailored zeolites which produces a counter-intuitive size-inverse...
Dr. Stewart Midgley (School of Physics, Monash University)
Dual energy X-ray analysis (DEXA) uses CT measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient at two photon energies to characterise materials; electron density and statistical measure of elemental composition, related to the concept of effective atomic number. Phantoms were prepared as liquid samples of known density and composition including ethanol-water mixtures and salt solutions...
21. Mechanistic and structural investigation of Li<sub>x</sub>MnO<sub>2</sub> cathodes during cycling in Li-ion batteries
Mr. Wesley Dose (University of Newcastle)
Increasingly there is demand for clean energy sources and suitable batteries to store this energy. Manganese dioxide and lithiated variants are a promising alternative to conventional Li-ion cathodes due to their cost, abundance, safety and electrochemical performance. Cathodes which operate by a single-phase lithium insertion/extraction process can offer some intrinsic advantages over those...
Ms. Chen Gao (Structural Biology Laboratory and ACRF Rational Drug Discovery Centre, St Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia)
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type-I transmembrane protein with a large ectodomain (sAPP), a single transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail. It is cleaved by beta- and gamma-secretases to generate amyloid-β (Aβ), a neurotoxic peptide implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). APP dimerisation is closely linked to Aβ overproduction. It is also implicated in APP signalling as APP is...
Dr. Stefan Hermans (St Vincent's Institute)
Dementia is the single greatest cause of disability in older Australians afflicting almost one in ten over the age of 65. In the absence of curative therapies, current treatments aimed at enhancing working memory target the cholinergic system and demonstrate limited efficacy, underpinning the need for a new class of cognitive enhancing drug. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is a...
61. High Resolution Imaging and Strain Characterisation at Pulsed Neutron Sources with a Microchannel plate detector
Mr. Henry Kirkwood (ARC COE Advanced Molecular Imaging - La Trobe University)
Recent advances in neutron detection technology are enabling collection of neutron transmission data with unprecedented spatial and time resolution [1,2]. Microchannel plates coupled with TimePix area detectors are now being used to perform time-of-flight neutron radiography experiments at 55 micron2 spatial resolution and 1 &mus temporal resolution. These sensors are suited to a...
Dr. Chris Sumby (University of Adelaide)
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that can be synthesised from metal ions or metal-oxide clusters (nodes) and organic building blocks (links). Through careful consideration of the chemistry of the organic links the properties of these materials can be tailored for particular applications. For example, a flexible framework capable of high yielding post-synthetic...
Dr. Christopher Poole (University of Melbourne)
Due to the very high dose rates (kGy/s) used in microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), rigorous fluence monitoring is necessary both for pre-treatment verification, and during therapy. We propose an in-beam monitoring system comprised of a 50 μm film of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) metalised with Aluminium positioned in the beam, coupled with a CMOS imaging system for the collection of fluorescence...
10. Distribution of aluminium in plant roots: Understanding its toxicity through correlative microscopy
Dr. Peter Kopittke (The University of Queensland)
Aluminium (Al) is toxic to plant root growth in the acid soils comprising ca. 40-70% of the world’s arable land, but the mechanisms whereby Al reduces growth remain unclear. Despite 30 µM Al decreasing root growth within 30 min, we are unaware of any study that has provided information on the distribution of Al in roots within this timeframe. Using roots of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)...
83. New Packings and Properties for Supramolecular Nanoballs through Solvent and Counterion Variation
Prof. Stuart Batten (Monash University)
We have synthesised large (2.7 nm) spherical metallosupramolecules (‘nanoballs’) with interesting properties [1-3]. Metal ions can be varied with retention of overall structure and crystal packing. The molecular packing creates cavities within the solid state, and the crystals readily absorb solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile or acetone (which also changes the magnetic properties), and...
23. <i>In Situ</i> PXRD Studies of the Solvothermal Syntheses of WO<sub>3</sub>-Ethylenediamine Hybrid Nanowires and Bi<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>x</sub>Te<sub>3-x</sub> Nanoplatelets
Dr. Fang Xia (CSIRO)
Solvothermal syntheses are very versatile for fabricating nanostructured materials. While the majority of studies focus on materials syntheses, little attention has been paid to understanding the synthesis mechanisms, which are of vital importance to the rational design of synthesis for preparing optimized materials. In this context, in situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) is ideal to...
Dr. MARIA C. HERNANDEZ-SORIANO (SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SCIENCES, THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND)
Carbon storage in soil is essential for soil productivity while being directly linked to climate change. Mapping microaggregate-associated forms of soil organic carbon can help understanding the mechanisms of carbon stabilization in soil, revealing molecular organization, physical protection in soil particles and co-localization of carbon sources with microbial processes. Spatially-resolved...
42. Synchrotron broad beam and MRT radiation induces DNA damage in normal mouse tissues distant from the irradiated volume
Mrs. Jessica Ventura (Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia)
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel, preclinical modality, with a unique ability to generate less radiation damage to neighbouring normal tissues, while providing efficient ablation to the tumour mass; compared to the currently used Broad Beam (BB) modality. A comprehensive investigation on the mechanisms and side effects of these modalities have not currently been established. Here...
95. Chemical Speciation Imaging using Fast X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy: Update on capabilities and future directions
Dr. David Paterson (Australian Synchrotron)
X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) can be used for elemental and chemical microanalysis across many length scales and is a powerful tool for quantitatively mapping trace elements within whole biological specimens . Advances in X-ray fluorescence detection schemes [2, 3] now enable acquisition at mega-pixel per hour rates which in turn allows collection of 3D information in realistic...
Mr. Frank Gagliardi (WBRC - Alfred Hospital, RMIT University)
High resolution 3D imaging of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) microbeams produced on the Australian Synchrotron's IMBL has been achieved using laser fluorescent confocal microscopy (LFCM). Radiosensitive dosimeters have been specifically fabricated to suit the extremely high dose of the MRT microbeams and the geometrical needs of the LFCM. Cross-fire, stereotactic and interlaced MRT beams...
Dr. Estela Garcez (Monash University)
The degree of hydration of cement pastes is critical for determining properties such as the durability of concrete. As part of an integrated study on the prediction of chloride ingress in reinforced concrete, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was used to estimate the degree of hydration of cement pastes. While for the past 20 years the composition of Portland cement has been determined by...
Dr. Evan Robertson (La Trobe University)
The IR spectral region is crucial to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Firstly, radiative processes associated with emission and extinction are fundamental to energy transfer and the IR region in particular is central for materials at the moderate temperatures found in non-stellar environments such as this planet’s atmosphere. Secondly, infrared spectroscopy is uniquely...
Dr. Yuqing Yang (University of Melbourne)
Synchrotron-generated microbeams radiotherapy (MRT) is a novel preclinical radiotherapy,in which synchrotron-generated X-rays are segmented by a collimator, producing intense microbeams. MRT has been shown to be extremely well tolerated by normal tissues including the central nervous system in animal models when compared to conventional radiotherapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to identify...
Prof. Feng Wang (Swinburne University of Technology)
The contemporary organometallic chemistry stems from the discovery of ferrocene Fe(C5H5)2, i.e., di-cyclopentadienyle iron (FeCp2 or Fc) half a century ago. Since its discovery, the heated debate whether the eclipsed or the staggered is the most stable structure of Fc continues. The fact that electronic structures and many properties of the Fc conformers are strikingly similar has been a key...
Dr. Bruce Ravel (NIST)
The first dedicated beamline for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) was built in 1974, since then XAS has become one of the core competencies of synchrotron radiation facilities and an essential tool for a broad range of scientific disciplines. XAS is a technique that remains closely associated with its roots in bend magnet sources and second generation facilities. In recent years,...
Prof. Andrew Peele (Australian Synchrotron)